Could Tyramine Be Causing Your Migraines (And What the Heck Is It)?
Tyramine is hiding in some of your favorite foods (we’re looking at you cheese). This naturally occurring compound is a migraine trigger for some. Get the full scoop.
Migraine triggers can vary widely between individuals. And in some people, particular foods and drinks can trigger a migraine. Tyramine, a naturally produced compound found in protein-containing foods, is one of these potential triggers. 1 2 Let’s dig in on how tyramine works — and learn why it may be a dietary migraine trigger for some.
What is Tyramine?
Tyramine is not a food additive. This compound is organically produced when the amino acid tyrosine breaks down, which can happen when foods are preserved, fermented, or aged for a long time. Examples of foods that contain tyramine include:
• Aged cheese such as blue, brick, cheddar, and others
• Aged, dried, fermented, smoked, or pickled meats or fish
• Broad beans such as fava beans, and snow peas
• Fermented cabbage or sauerkraut
• Fermented soy products such as miso, soy sauce, or teriyaki sauce
• Improperly stored or spoiled foods
Normally, your digestive system breaks down tyramine, stopping excessive amounts of it from building up in the circulation. But higher-than-normal tyramine levels may cause the wrong signals to be sent within the body.3 For example, within the sympathetic nervous system, tyramine is thought to stimulate the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and may also cause certain receptors to be activated, which in turn could induce head pain. Although scientists continue to explore exactly how tyramine may trigger migraines, one explanation may lie in unusual levels of such neurotransmitters.
Is Tyramine a Trigger For You?
Keeping a migraine diary can help you and your doctor find out if your migraines are related to tyramine or another trigger. This diary should include when your migraine occurs, how severe your migraine pain is, what you’ve had to eat or drink, and if you’ve been exposed to other potential triggers.
You may need to record this information for several months, as food triggers may not always be consistent and some migraines may happen as late as 24 hours after you eat the specific food. But knowing whether certain foods affect your migraines may help you manage your migraines better.
Tyramine in Your Diet
Although the role that foods play in triggering migraines remains controversial, some sufferers find that eliminating selected foods from their diet reduces the number of migraines that they experience.
Learn more by checking out this low-tyramine diet suggested by the National Headache Foundation. You can also make some simple food in your everyday eating habits that may help reduce migraines for some. For example, swap aged cheese for fresh varieties, choose raw vegetables over pickles, and use fresh herbs instead of soy-based condiments for seasoning.
1. Martin VT, Behbehani MM. Toward a rational understanding of migraine trigger factors. Med Clin North Am. 2001;85(4):911-941. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=911%5Bpage%5D+AND+2001%5Bpdat%5D+AND+Martin%5Bfirst+author%5D&cmd=detailssearch
2. Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(5):446-452. http://journals.lww.com/clinicalpain/Abstract/2009/06000/Foods_and_Supplements_in_the_Management_of.15.aspx
3. D’Andrea G, D’Arrigo A, Carbonare MD, Leon A. Pathogenesis of Migraine: Role of Neuromodulators. Medscape Oncology. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/767947